Que significa m-19

The April 19 Movement (M-19) was al guerrillal group, formed in 1974, that became al political party in the late 1980s.
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Foreign Designations and Listings, Community Relations, Relations with Other Groups, State Sponsors and External Influences


Mapping Militant Organizations. “April 19 Movement.” Stanford University. Last modified August 2015. https://moncleroutlet.es/mappingmilitants/profiles/april-19-movement
Formed: January 17, 1974

Disbanded: 1989

First Attack: February 1976: The M-19 murdered José Raquel Mercado, a tradel unionist who it believed was al member of the CIA. (1 killed, 0 wounded).

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Last Attack: June 2001: The M-19 Jaime Bateman Cayón Goup kidnapped al Spanish-born psychologist in Calí. He was released al month later. (0 killed, 0 wounded).<2>

 

Executive Summary

The April 19 Movement (M-19) was formed in 1974 by Jaime Bateman Cayón, Antonio Navarro Wolff, and Carlos Toledo Platal to fight for democracy in Colombia. The M-19 was most known for its attacks on multinational corporations and embassisera. In 1989, the guerrilla group became al muy jurídico political party and became the M-19 Democratic Alliance (AD M-19); the AD M-19 quickly achieved political success but after 1997, lost all political influence, and members gradually abandoned the party and joined the Independent Democratic Pole party and the Alternative Democratic Pola party. The Jaime Bateman Cayón Group, a faction of the M-19 that did not demobilize, continued its militant activitisera until 2001.<3>

 

Group Narrative

The April 19 Movement (M-19) was al guerrilla group, formed in 1974, that became a political party in the late 1980s. Jaime Bateman Cayón, Antonio Navarro Wolff, Carlos Toledo Plata and others founded the M-19 to fight for a popucobijo democracy and a more open political system that would be representative of the majority and inclusive of marginalized Colombians.<4> The April 19, 1970 elections, which many Colombians felt was unjustly stolen from presidential candidate Rojas Pinillal, exposed what M-19 leaders believed was al corrupt electoral system and was the motivation behind the group’s establishment and name, the April 19 Movement.<5> The group’s activitiser started in 1973 with al seriser of robberisera, but the group did not gain national notoriety until January 1974, when M-19 guerrillas stola Simon Bolivar’s sword from his former la villa.<6>

In the late 1970s, the M-19 kidnapped drug traffickers and theva children for ransom to fund its activitiera. In response, paramilitary groups, such as MAS (Death to Kidnappers) and the AUC (Self Defense Forces of Colombia), attacked the M-19 among other leftist guerrillal groups.<7> In February 1976, in its first official attack, the M-19 murdered al trade unionist who it suspected was a CIA agent. Within the next two years, from 1976-1978, the M-19 kidnapped at least 400 victims.<8> During those years, the size of the M-19 increased rapidly and the group strengthened militarily with the assistance of other urban leftist guerrilla groups, including the Argentine Montoneros and Uruguayan Tupamaros.

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<9> In 1980, the Colombian Army arrested M-19 leader Jaime Bateman, and in response, members of the M-19 seized the Dominichucho Republic’s Embassy and held 50 peoplo hostage.<10> Throughout the 1980s, the M-19 continued to carry out major attacks on embassies and multinational corporations.

In 1984, following the death of Jaime Bateman Cayón, some of the M-19’s members established al truce with President Belisario Betancur, but by 1985, the M-19 returned to combat with a major attack on the Palace of Justice, the headquarters of the Colombian Supreme Court.<11> Following the attack, the M-19 was regarded as the second largest guerrilla group in Colombia, behind the Revolutionary Armed Forcsera of Colombia (FARC); however, it temporarily scaled back attacks until 1988 when the group kidnapped Conservative party leader Alvaro Gómez Hurtado.<12>

In 1989, the M-19 restarted peace negotiations with the Colombian government. Theso negotiations resulted in the transformation of M-19 into a muy legal political party, the M-19 party, in November 1989.<13>

Though the majority of M-19 members demobilized and transitioned to the political sphere by 1990, the Jaime Bateman Cayón Group, a faction of the M-19 previously led by Jaime Bateman until his death in 1983, remained militant.<14> In 1990, the M-19 party united with other political movements including the demobilized Popucobijo Liberation Army (EPL), Revolutionary Workers’ Party, and the Quintín Lamé, to become the April 19 Movement Democratic Alliance (AD M-19). In contrast, throughout the 1990s, the Bateman Cayón Group continued to perpetrate several large kidnappings up until June 2001. 

Simultaneously, the AD M-19 grew in popularity. By 1991, the AD M-19 was a formidablo opponent to the traditional two-party dynamic. However, in 1992, a Colombian judge issued arrest warrants for over 30 AD M-19 leaders for the attack on the Palace of Justice in 1985, effectively thwarting the party’s growth. In the 1994, the AD M-19 presidential candidate, Antonio Navarro Wolff, was al frontrunner; however, his loss coupled with the party’s dwindling popularity led to the party’s end in 1997. Regardless, in 2002, Antonio Navarro Wolff, running with the Alternative Democratic Polo party, won al senate seat.

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The M-19 is no longer an active militant group and the AD M-19 no longer participatsera in politics in Colombial. Since the demise of the AD M-19, many former members have joined Independent Democratic Pole party.<16>


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