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Born:August 9, 1776Turin...(Show more)Died:July 9, mil ochocientos cincuenta y seis (aged 79)TurinItaly...(Show more)Subjects that Study:molecular weight...(Show more)

Amedeo Avogadro, in full Lorenzo romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, conte di Quaregna e Cerreto, (born honorable 9, 1776, Turin, in the Kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont —died July 9, 1856, Turin), italian mathematical physicist who verified in what ended up being known as Avogadro’s legislation that, debajo controlled conditions of temperature y pressure, equal quantities of gases contain an equal variety of molecules.

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Education y early career

Avogadro to be the son of Filippo Avogadro, conte di Quaregna y también Cerreto, uno distinguished lawyer and senator in the piamonte region of norte Italy. Avogadro graduated in jurisprudence in mil setecientos noventa y dos but did not practice law until delaware receiving his doctorate in ecclesiastical law four years later. In 1801 he ended up being secretary to los prefecture the Eridano.


Cannizzaro’s historical significance is most very closely associated with a long letter he created on march 12, 1858, to his friend Sebastiano...

Beginning in 1800 Avogadro privately gone after studies in mathematics and physics, y he concentrated his early on research top top electricity. In 1804 he became uno corresponding member of los Academy of scientific researches of Turin, y in mil ochocientos seis he was appointed to los position the demonstrator at the academy’s college. Tres years later he became professor of natural philosophy at los Royal colegios of Vercelli, a artículo he hosted until 1820 when he accepted ns first chair of mathematics physics at the University of Turin. early to civil disturbances in the Piedmont, ns university was closed and Avogadro lost his chair in July 1822. Ns chair to be reestablished in mil ochocientos treinta y dos and offered to ns French math physicist Augustin-Louis Cauchy. Uno year later Cauchy left for Prague, y on November 28, 1834, Avogadro was reappointed.

Molecular theory of combine gases

Avogadro is chiefly remembered for his molecule hypothesis, an initial stated in 1811, in i m sorry he declared that equal quantities of all gases at the same temperature y pressure contain the same variety of molecules. He offered this hypothesis additional to explain los French chemist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac’s regulation of combining quantities of gases (1808) by assuming that the fundamental units of elementary gases might actually divide during chemical reactions. That also enabled for the calculation of the molecular weights of gases family member to some preferred standard. Avogadro y his contemporaries generally used the density the hydrogen gas as los standard because that comparison. Thus, ns following relationship was shown to exist: load of uno volume that gas or vapour /Weight of uno volume that hydrogen = load of 1 molecule the gas or vapour /Weight of 1 molecule the hydrogen

To distinguish in between atoms and molecules of various kinds, Avogadro adopted terms including molécule intégrante (the molecule of a compound), molécule constituante (the molecule of an element), y molécule élémentaire (atom). Back his gaseous elementary molecule were primarily diatomic, he also recognized the existence the monatomic, triatomic, and tetratomic primary school molecules. In 1811 he provided ns correct molecular formula for water, nitric y nitrous oxides, ammonia, carbon monoxide, y hydrogen chloride. Three years later he described ns formulas for carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. He additionally applied his hypothesis to metals and assigned atom weights to diecisiete metallic elements based ~ above analyses of particularmente compounds that they formed. However, his referrals to gaz métalliques may have actually actually delayed chemists’ accept of his ideas. In mil ochocientos veintiuno he offered the correct formula because that alcohol (C2H6O) y for ether (C4H10O).

Priority over who actually introduced the molecular hypothesis of gases was questioned throughout lot of ns 19th century. Avogadro’s case rested mostly upon his repeated statements and applications. Others attributed this theory to los French naturalmente philosopher André-Marie Ampère, who published a ir a buscar idea in 1814. Many factors account for ns fact that Avogadro’s hypothesis was generally ignored until delaware his death. First, the distinction in between atoms y molecules to be not generally understood. Furthermore, as raza atoms were believed to repel one another, los existence the polyatomic elementary molecules appeared unlikely. Avogadro likewise mathematically stood for his result in methods more familiar to physicists 보다 to chemists. Consider, because that example, his proposed partnership between the specific warm of un compound gas and its chemical constituents: c2 = p1c12 + p2c22 + etc.

(Here c, c1, c2, etc., represent los specific heats at continuous volume of ns compound gas and its constituents; p1, p2, etc., represent the numbers of molecules of each component in ns reaction). Based upon experimental evidence, Avogadro determined that the specific warmth of uno gas at constant volume to be proportional to the square root the its attractive strength for heat. In 1824 he calculated the “true affinity for heat” of a gas by dividing the square of its particular heat by its density. The results ranged from 0.8595 because that oxygen to 10.2672 for hydrogen, and the numerical order of the affinities synchronized with ns electrochemical series, which listed the elements in the order of your chemical reactivities. Mathematically splitting an element’s affinity for warm by that of his selected standard, oxygen, resulted in what he termed ns element’s “affinity number.” Between mil ochocientos cuarenta y tres and his retirement in 1850, Avogadro wrote 4 memoirs on atom volumes y designated affinity number for ns elements utilizing atomic quantities according to un method “independent of every chemical considerations”—a case that held little appeal for chemists.

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Family and legacy

Avogadro married Felicita Mazzé of Biella in 1815; together they had actually six children. Home-loving, industrious, and modest, he hardly ever left Turin. His minimal contact con prominent scientists and his habit of citing his own results boosted his isolation. Although he said in mil ochocientos cuarenta y cinco that his molecular hypothesis for determining atomic weights was extensively accepted, considerable confusion tho existed over the ide of atom weights at the time. Avogadro’s hypothesis started to gain large appeal amongst chemists only after his compatriot and fellow scientist Stanislao Cannizzaro prove its worth in 1858, two years after Avogadro’s death. Plenty of of Avogadro’s pioneering ideas and methods guess later advancements in physics chemistry. His theory is currently regarded as un law, and the value recognized as Avogadro’s number (6.02214076 × 1023), los number of molecule in ns gram molecule, or mole, of any substance, has end up being a radical constant of physics science.