JOSE MARIA Y PAVON BIOGRAFIA

Religious, politician y hero mexico born 30 September 1765 in Valladolid (today Morelia) the "good reputation and ancient Christian" parents and dead shot in San pie de cristo Ecatepec on 22 December 1815.

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He was the estaban of manual Morelos, Carpenter of Indian descent and Juana María sidra de pera Pavón, Creole, whose father had actually been a school teacher in the city. For fourteen years, in addition to letter that his mom taught that only recognize that it assisted in what he/she might for los support of the family. Los death of the father in 1779, however, meant crucial change. Entrusted to los custody of his uncle, Felipe Morelos, relocated to a farm near Apatzingan (Michoacan) and was devoted, first tillage and shortly delaware to command carrier as a recua the mules, i beg your pardon his uncle dedicated to transferring rich cargoes of goods between los port of Acapulco, terminal of los Manila Galleons, and the ciudad of Mexico. This activity detailed a regularmente income, which the young Morelos invest in purchase mules and support his mother y sister.


Thus he/she lived to los age the 25, "invigorating body y gaining knowledge of los Earth hot, scene of their insurgent activities". In 1790, at ns insistence that her mommy wished for his entry right into an ecclesiastical career, with the illusion that accede to un Chaplaincy or advantage left through his mom bisabuleo, separated from his uncle Felipe y returned to Valladolid to go into in the colegio de smo Nicolás. Over there he/she had the opportunity come meet los rector nombre de niño Hidalgo y Costilla, which synchronized during two years, although any historian dares come point fuera the presence of uno special relationship between teacher y disciple. He/She studied grammar and latin y two año later expanded these research studies in the Tridentine Seminary in ns same city, receiving accuse in rhetoric and philosophy. The veintiocho April 1795 he/she received ns degree that Bachelor of arts in the ciudad of Mexico.

Shortly after he/she requested ns hierarchy that Valladolid who room you confiriesen los clerical tonsure, los four minor orders y the subdiaconato, what you gained at the end of that very same year. In April 1796, it welcomed an sell of the cure of Uruapan come teach grammar and rhetoric to place children, delaware receiving the corresponding license. It was his first paid intellectual activity. Delaware some years of practice, top top December 20, 1797, 32 years viejo of age, he/she was promoted to ns priesthood, giving licenses to celebrate mass, hear confessions and preaching in Uruapan y neighbouring curatos.

Thus began a largo priestly career the led the to work-related as parish priest, an initial in uno district that Churumuco "hottest y perhaps the most miserable of the villages the Michoacán", returning from which she mother passed away in Patzcuaro, before showing up at Valladolid. Morelos remained at Churumuco for little much more than one year, till in March 1799 he/she was moved to Carácuaro parish, about 50 miles away, simply as poor as the previous yet much an ext populous. In Carácuaro lived Morelos an entire decade, administering ns parish y live desde the contributions of the filigreses, which stood up to by all means to pay Church taxes.


It is known, meanwhile, maintained and improved a business of livestock that had started in ns time that carrier, given the legacy of his mother, transferred his sister los family house, currently casa of Morelos in the city of Morelia, y had dos illegitimate sons. Later, during los revolutionary period, he/she had two more children. In 1807, he/she purchase a casa in Valladolid come which increased an additional floor in 1809, without having actually it less specific that news that he/she was preparing un revolution got to him. It is true that chroniclers point fuera the farming dissatisfaction y in any case ns frustration of Morelos, accumulated over many la edad of parish priest.

In October 1810, connoisseur of the rising of nombre de niño Hidalgo, who had actually been its rector in san Nicolás, y to have actually news of ns edict whereby be excommunicated him, "awoke his curiosity to such an extent, the he/she felt thrust to walk to Hidalgo y talk come him". Apparently, he/she meant ns offer as un chaplain, but once carried fuera this conference on veinte October, Hidalgo convinced him to accept uno Commission much more important. He/She composed this letter: "commissioned in due form to Mr atraer José María Morelos, monk in Carácuaro, together my Lieutenant y I ordered to walk to the sur coast to train troops y to comply with verbal orders which i have provided you". This instructions included ns taking of los port that Acapulco, Morelos knew an extremely well. Top top October 25, Morelos, attach by un score the poorly armed volunteers, departed representar Cuaracaro towards the hot floor of the south (see: cry the Dolores).

Insurgent activity in Morelos lasted five years, along which it was able to construct four military campaigns attributed the historians, also as a political, doctrinal y administrative work which consists of an advanced, fix up and extendido and social sense-laden believed to. It is recognized uno budding genius military strategist, ruthless and cruel sometimes, able come confront y subdue repeatedly to ns realistic más alto armies in number, debajo the mando of los fearsome Félix María Calleja.


The first campaign, in October 1810 to honorable 1811, allowed him come organize y constitute uno body that troops disciplined and well-armed, with the occupation of Acapulco which tried unsuccessfully in February 1811. Unable to accomplish it withdrew con his forces to Tecpan, representar which prepared the Chilpancingo attack on 24 May and the taking of Tixtla (today ciudad Guerrero) dos days later. In ns course that this campaign joined brothers Miguel and Victor Bravo, born in los hacienda that Chichihualco; Vicente Guerrero, un native that Tixtla and the hermano Galeana, Tecpan. In ~ this time it counted with ns collaboration of the american Perter Ellis Bean, adventurer y cosmopolitan and manufacturer that gunpowder, which developed in huge quantity for los insurgent troops.

Unfortunately, June mil ochocientos once were enforcement in nombre de niño Hidalgo y his key aides, though he/she prospered him in the direction of ejercicio Ignacio López Rayón who retired to Zacatecas and was interned in Michoacan, together it matured and sealed ns political ideological background that provide coherence y unity to ns initiatives that have arised throughout the country. Together with artículo María Liceaga, año later teammate javier Mina y José Sixto Verduzco, sent del Morelos, Rayon established los Supreme National tablero of estados unidos de américa in agosto this year. Los greatest objection the Morelos put to this conference was asserted compliance come Fernando VII, defended by Rayon as un measure of prudence y moderation. This was, therefore, ns first cell nucleus of ns insurgent Government, which attracted los sympathy that intellectuals y Creole landowners that wished to establish a system of Boards similar to ns implanted in the provinces that Spain. In the city of Mexico began, at this time, ns formation of a secreto society called ns Guadalupes.

In August mil ochocientos once Morelos had, in his own words, "with 4 battalions on battle footing: one to protect los ports on los coast;" an additional in los Veladero, outside Acapulco; un third in Tixtla y the latter in Chilpancingo, in charge of the supply the gunpowder." representar the an initial moment Morelos leaned through proclamation of part revolutionary principles, taken representar his conversations with Hidalgo. Aguacatillo, on diecisiete November 1810, he/she had actually announced ns establishment the a new Government y this Decree included los abolition of slavery (which would confirm with solemnity at los beginning the 1813), tributes and the treasuries of ns communities. This Decree is thought about one of los most important papers in the sociedad history that Latin America. Together justification because that its lifting, he/she claimed that "since Spain was in the hands of los French and the gachupines conspiring with Napoleon come perpetuate your power, every Americans must unite in defense of the country y the religion".


The second campaign that Morelos, after a couple of months devoted to the reorganization y preparation of your hosts, developed in November 1811 may 1812. When taken Tlapa gathered all his forces in Chiautla to create a nuevo strategy: split his military into numero 3 large sections, one under the mando of miguel Bravo, which would March towards ns South y would shot to conquer Oaxaca; ns second led by Hermenegildo Galeana, who would attack and would dominate Taxco y the third, under the direction of los own Morelos, i beg your pardon would relocate northward, would enter Izúcar there is no fighting on 12 December, to strike Tenango y Tenancingo, before showing up in Cuautla (Morelos), populated on Christmas day. Historians discuss why Morelos did no follow as much as Puebla, whose occupation would have actually constituted the advance to los fall of ns capital. On ns other hand, leave sheltered Cuautla, preferred running westward come join los Galeana troops stationed come Taxco. He/She was one of its most serious military mistakes.

Because both, Calleja, with a numerous military Corps, besieged Zitácuaro (Michoacán), residence that the board of Rayon, forcing that members come flee y disperse without offering resistance. This was ns beginning of the decadence that Rayon and his followers y was ns severe punch to los insurgent initial optimism.

To know the fall of Zitacuaro, Morelos went back to Cuautla, vía Cuernavaca, ready to resist ns announced assault of Calleja. Los site that Cuautla, i beg your pardon lasted representar February to may 1812, has actually been interpreted differently by los panegyrists of each of the sides. Originally Morelos regulated to defeat Calleja, however reinforced this refreshing troops, while the insurgents were unable come organize ns foreign force that attacked the realistic head in the back, los depletion the food, absence of water y the harassment of ns epidemics, they decimated los numbers that Morelos y they forced him to organize an leave risky, finishing with especialmente success. Both los insurgents and the own Calleja is attributed ns triumph over their opponents, but the siege the Cuautla, in any type of case, constituted a modelo of resistance limit, which undermined and tempered ns triumphalism of ns viceroy.

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The 3rd campaign, desde June 1812 to august 1813, is the busiest y most resounding success that Morelos stage. Regrouped his efectivo in Chiautla, Galeana and Bravo, for ns few months he/she conquered shaft Chiautla-Tehuacán, filed miscellaneous actions with los realistic forces and tried to prevent communications between the capital y the harbor of Veracruz. But getting here in November decided to take it the ciudad of Oaxaca, which got the 25th the this month. It"s one more bright army actions that Morelos, which had los support the Mariano Matamoros y Miguel Bravo, managing to defeat los troops of los Spanish visión de conjunto González Saravia. "The brilliant success of Morelos in Oaxaca lot reinforced los fate the insurgents, increased his empleado prestige y produced un lot of cosas benefits." Morelos created to Rayon: "this beautiful province deserves her attention and it i have by ns way that us founded los conquest of all ns Kingdom <...> the resources the encloses of advantageous men, mining, tobacco, ports and sprinkles the we become rifles".

For numerous weeks, Oaxaca was los headquarters the Morelos, which strengthened y extended his mastery of ns area at los time that intensified their bureaucratic work y management of the insurgency. He/She created the intendance of the province and the ciudad Council, issued regulations concerning the commercial times, the carrying that arms, los curfew y the usar of a empleado identification badge. Likewise created a tablón of protection and public safety, responsible for los order and safety of the people. At los party"s compliance with the Supreme Board, arose wearing a nuevo uniform, with the logotipo of captain general, which symbolized the Summit of his army career.

At the time, that was hesitant if pass through into ns Valley that Mexico, together they asked your followers of los capital, partners in los grouping of ns Guadalupes, or productivity to the instinct that pointed fuera you must seize a sea port, to combine its connections with the United States and facilitating ns arrival the aid desde abroad. Tipped through this second option, he/she left Oaxaca top top January 9, 1813, he/she crossed the cordillera performing marches tremendous and, representar April, established the siege of Acapulco, i beg your pardon lasted for several months till August veinte it acquired its capitulation. Most commentators believe that, con this decision, Morelos shed seven valuable months, which had actually been able come tilt the outcome of ns insurgency. Anyway, with the conquest that Morelos, Acapulco he/she controlled a territory the stretched representar Guatemala come Colima, including most of ns current estados of Oaxaca y Guerrero, and also the del sur of Veracruz, Puebla, Mexico y Michoacan. In the city of Oaxaca, along almost all los year 1813 was published, on ns initiative the Morelos, south of american mail, newspaper insurgent.

In the meantime, some advancements had occurred in ns political arena. Connoisseur Morelos of ns intentions of Rayon enact an americano Constitution, delayed reply y when did, few days before conquering Oaxaca, expressed significant objections: had actually to definitely exclude los mention of Fernando VII, limit ns number of director of State y accept that the choice of los proposed Generalissimo of ns Republic was in for life, alguna more borders to "disability, disease, or los age that sixty years". Rayon not signed into law its to plan Constitution, amongst other reasons, because in the ciudad of Mexico has actually been published and publicly stood up to the nuevo Spanish structure enacted in Cádiz (veae: Spanish structure of 1812).

Mediated ns month the may, while he/she to be besieging Acapulco, arisen in Morelos the idea of convening a national Congress the provincial representatives, in an answer to the initiatives of Rayon. After you use this to meet the members the its council in Chilpancingo, whereby "would it is in re-elected or deposed," he/she directed uno decree to the provinces therefore they choose electors that should satisfy on September 8, with los purpose the electing a new Congress. When ns time comes, drafted ns text known as ns feelings of los nation, which offered as ns basis for los deliberations of los gathered. In fact, ns majority of ns proposals, speeches y proclamations that Chilpancingo, were created by charlie María Bustamante, faithful follower of Morelos.

He is considered his last campaign, much more political content that military, was developed precisely desde September 1813 and will its loss prisoner in Temeslaca, in November 1815. Mounted in Chilpancingo, Morelos, he/she recipe a destinado a of federal government composed of 59 articles, practically ns draft Constitution. He/She recognized los principle of the separation of powers, proposed that ns Executive working out it a Generalissimo chosen in perpetuity and with ns right to propose law that considers necessary. Los legislature would be in the posesión of a Congress of Deputies, whose world would be asserted sacred and inviolable, keeping the existing judiciary at ns moment. Article diecisiete declared independence from Spain, without reference to any kind of monarch. The ex officio members of los Congress consisted of members of los Supreme board of Rayon.

On catorce September, once ns Congress, Morelos read un speech y members began los consideration of los proposals had in the feelings of ns nation. Ns next day he/she to be elected visión de conjunto by acclamation, con all ns powers and the power to appoint their lieutenants, dues that checked out Mariano Matamoros y Manuel Muñíz. We had actually to wait for more than one month to arrive Rayon, Bustamante, Liceaga and Cos, however in November held regularmente sessions y the sixth Congress approved a declaration the independence, drafted by Bustamante. Therefore began: "the conference of Anáhuac <...> solemnly declares the presence that the señor God, árbitro moderator of realms <...> which by ns present situations of Europe, has actually recovered the exercise that its sovereignty usurped; the such a concept is broken forever ever, y dissolved ns dependence of ns Spanish throne <...> "."

Eager to conquer Valladolid, since he/she understood ns need for a ciudad in which to settle, Morelos determined his assault, coming to besiege it representar December 22, 1813. But the realists, reinforced in the último few month with the arrival of essential contingent that troops sent by Viceroy Calleja, compelled to Morelos to retire in confused rout, which decimated and discouraged his followers. Hence began ns military and political decrease of ns insurgent leader, forced to retreat y to obey ns orders of ns Congress the Chilpancingo, duration that lasted nearly dos years.

Felix María Calleja, appointed viceroy of nuevo Spain, took advantage of this situation to put press on every fronts, advancing on Chilpancingo, i m sorry forced los Congress to connect in un relentless March, the would eventually lead him to the city of Apatzingan, heading come Jalisco, where eventually discussed y proclaimed the constitutional message on October 22, 1814. Morelos, meanwhile, resigned as ns Executive Branch y ceased to practice military command any, except los troops that his escort. Espalda to Acapulco, live moments really painful, to find out of ns death the their many loyal entusiastas such together Matamoros and Galeana, executing arms representar its armed forces strategy: "Acabaronse my arms, already identificación am not", he/she said.

Running representar one location to another, means hidden y surrounded by uno small convoy contingent, repelled the forces sent to record him, participated in the work of los Congress con admirable fidelity, kept their principles and discussed part of the measures that sought come take ns leaders of ns insurgency. In los middle of mil ochocientos catorce he/she asked for of his collaborator Peter E. P who moved to ns United States, need for aid and weaponry. Bean did so, he/she met josé a. Humbert French and, through this, contacted joe Álvarez ese Toledo, sought refuge in new Orleans delaware his fail of Texas. In May mil ochocientos quince Toledo wrote to Congress, got an appointment of visión de conjunto insurgent abroad signed through Morelos, y volunteered to organize an exploration in assistance of independence. When joe Manuel Herrera, Member of parliament who had actually been chairman of ns Congress in Chilpancingo, moved to nuevo Orleans along with Toledo, un window was opened up to insurgent hope.

Congress, meanwhile, exit Apatzingan and settled in Uruapan, when he/she made decision the new tripartite Executive composed of Morelos, Cos y Liceaga. Bound by their desire to acquire closer come a sea port the would permit her to get long-awaited foreign aid, but likewise by dissensions and confrontations of their leaders, chose his transfer to Tehuacán, ordering Morelos escort y defend los members of ns legislature. With ns addition that Nicolás Bravo, the military contingent consisted of uno thousand soldiers, fifty percent of lock armed. However, in ~ Tesmalaca, six mil beyond los Mezcala river (near the current Iguala), a realistic detachment debajo the command of Colonel of ns shell fell on los convoy and apprehended Morelos, while Bravo had the ability to escape, protecting the convoy until your arrival to Tehuacán.

Led to the city of Mexico, 22 November mil ochocientos quince was ns first of the serie of trials come which he/she to be subjected, due to the fact that military, ecclesiastical and civil authorities disputed the right come condemn it. Describe quickly, ns first attempt ended the day 23 and climate arose ns prisoner ns frightening Court of the Inquisition, which also by abandonment of the Church"s doctrines y heresies the malignant authors adopting, condemning that for"heretic apostate, materialistic, Deist, libertine, implacable adversary of Christianity and the State, seductive vile, hypocritical y traitorous". Ns ruling handed down by ns consultation of belief agreed to make a car of public faith, adhered to by its degradation, the confiscation of every their building and, if los viceroy forgave los life, your expulsion from estados unidos de américa to endure prison perpetua in an african prison.

Apparently, as ns good Catholic, deeply pertained to about the salvation of his soul, with each other with ns impressive argumentation of ns Court, overcame their resistance and forced him to reveal generally detailed civil y military information gastos generales the food of the five año of insurgency. The atrevimiento de fe, hosted on November 27, "was a terrible spectacle. Los prisoner came into los room with penitential habits, knelt at the ceremony the reconciliation while they sang los miserere y gave him a friendly plamadas the purification". The state trial to be held ns following day and his statement, recorded and annotated by ns own Morelos, is one of the most an important sources of information on ns independence movement.

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Decreed his death, the viceroy delay it for un few weeks, probably to wait for ns reaction that would capture or los delivery of other insurgent leaders. Finally, on veintidos December, led by un platoon that soldiers and in the sociedad of a priest, he/she was taken to San pie de cristo Ecatepec, whereby is fusiló him and buried. There must remain his remains, till his move solemn Cathedral that Mexico, according to Decree of ns Congress that July 23, 1823. In 1910, as well as other leader of los independence, castle were inserted in the crypt of ns independence column, put up that very same year in los Paseo ese la Reforma.

Bibliography

Tile ZABRE, A. Life of Morelos. UNAM. Life the Morelos y Mexico, 1945. Austral collection. Espasa Calpe. Madrid, 1946

LEMOINE VILLICAÑA, E. Morelos, his revolutionary life through his writings. UNAM. Mexico, 1965

HEEMESDORF. R. Morelos, Mexico necesario man. Editorial Grijalbo. Mexico, 1958

DE LA TORRE VILLAR, E. The independence that Mexico. Editorial Mapfre. Madrid, 1992

TIMMONS, W. H. Morelos, priest, soldier, statesman. Fondo del Cultura Económica. Mexico, 1963