D. JUAN DE AUSTRIA

JUAN ese AUSTRIA, patrón (1547–1578)JUAN del AUSTRIA, DON (1547–1578), Spanish admiral and governor, recognized to Elizabethans as atraer John. Born in Regensburg, Germany, to civilian Barbara Blomberg, don Juan, ns natural ellos eran of Emperor charles V, was carried to Brussels, wherein his mother married. In mil quinientos cincuenta Charles had los boy, called Jeromín, required to Spain by uno servant couple, and then, in 1554, transferred to ns castle the his cook of household, profesor universitario Luis de Quijada, y his wife, Doña Magdalena de Ulloa, at Villagarcía después Campos. Prior to his death, charles saw Jeromín but did no openly recognize his parentage. In mil quinientos cincuenta y nueve Philip II embraced Jeromín as his brother and renamed that Juan ese Austria. Philip did not accord him imperial status, despite he was ranked before ns grandees, however in mil quinientos setenta y cinco he succumbed to patrón Juan"s gift addressed as "Highness." charles hoped don Juan can enter los clergy, however during his education and learning in statecraft alongside Prince Don blanco and alexander Farnese, future duke of Parma, he revealed his martial inclinations. Once he reached twenty-one in 1568, Philip appointed that Captain visión de conjunto of the Sea.

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Don juan returned from his summer at ~ ~ to find the court mourning los deaths of los mentally unstable profesor universitario Carlos and the queen. Differing with Philip over his place at los queen"s funeral, he withdrew to un monastery. When the Morisco rebellion erupted in Granada, atraer Juan volunteered to serve as can be fried commander gastos generales feuding local grandees in March 1569 to suppress it. Quijada, assigned to overview him, was mortally herido in uno skirmish, and a musket ball grazed his very own helmet. In subduing ns rebellion, the became ns skilled general. Blond y handsome, he also became un womanizer. He sired two natural daughters, one in Spain, the other in Naples.

When Philip i agreeed to a Holy league with Venice y Pope Pius V against the Ottoman Turks in 1570, the sought supreme mando for atraer Juan. Philip hope the league might recover Tunis y conquer Algiers, delaware saving Cyprus because that Venice. Don Juan sailed from barcelona in July 1571 and had the League armada assembled in ~ Messina by September. Unknown to him, Cyprus had been lost. Despite disagreements that the season was late, he took ns league armada to sea. The doscientos siete galleys of ns distrustful allies he mixed in los center, dos wings, y rearguard, so that none dared desert. On 7 October mil quinientos setenta y uno he won uno heady victory gastos generales the Turks at Lepanto and became a hero to every Christendom.

He hope to complete los destruction the Turkish sea power in 1572, but Philip II, nervous around developments in France y the Netherlands, maintained him y his galleys in the western Mediterranean. Not till September did don Juan join ns Venetian y papal galleys off los Peloponnesus, wherein forts and cavalry impede him representar destroying the beached Turkish fleet.

Venice quit the league in march 1573, y Don despues de ansan recovered Tunis in October. Advised to dismantle ns fortress of La Goleta, which conquered Tunis"s harbor, and level Tunis, atraer Juan determined instead to organize La Goleta and erect ns citadel in los city. (Critics asserted he hoped ns pope would make him king of Tunis.) In summer 1574, while profesor universitario Juan was distracted by Genoese politics y French threats, a huge Turkish armada took Tunis and La Goleta. In mil quinientos setenta y cinco Philip claimed bankruptcy, limiting atraer Juan come raids against Turkish Barbary.

In May 1576 he got orders come proceed directly to los rebellious Netherlands together governor-general y restore peace. In correspondence con his half-sister, Margaret of Parma, once regent there, the expressed fear of together assignment. Various other than duty, the only lure, nurtured by ns papacy, was the possibility of invading inglaterra to liberate mar Stuart, queen the Scots, and join she on England"s throne. Uncertain about funds y authority, he detoured to check out Philip in Spain. Continuing through France in disguise, he got to Luxembourg in November to discover that the sack the Antwerpby mutineers had actually united los Estates-General (the Netherlands" parliament) against him. Only by dismissing Philip"s army, (and, thus, the chance to free Mary Stuart), temporizing on religion, y trading ~ above his empleado charm go he success acceptance. In May mil quinientos setenta y siete he entered Brussels. Together his instructions allowed no real concessions regarding religion, ns Protestant provinces remained defiant. Fearing assassination, in July patrón Juan seized Namur in the southern Netherlands y dispatched secretary Juan del Escobedo come Spain come beg the regresar of ns army. Having just obtained fresh treasure from America, Philip reluctantly agreed.

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In December 1577 the army returned with ns prince that Parma. In January 1578 they routed ns Estates-Generals" military at Gembloux. In Spain, los king"s unscrupulous and ambitious secretary, Antonio Pérez, bred unjustified suspicions of atraer Juan in Philip"s mind, y in March had Escobedo murdered (probably with Philip"s approval). Again, inadequately funded, don Juan failed prior to Brussels in July. Con success eluding him and unsure the Philip"s trust, that regrouped external Namur, where, health and wellness failing, he passed away on 1 October 1578. He had served Philip faithfully and, if the failed, that was because of their shared opposition to religious toleration.

See also Charles V (Holy roman Empire) ; Lepanto, fight of ; Moriscos ; Moriscos, Expulsion that (Spain) ; Parma, alexander Farnese, duque of ; Philip II (Spain).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dennis, Amarie. Patrón Juan the Austria. Madrid, 1966.

Ibañez después Ibero, Carlos, Marqués de Mulhacén. Patrón Juan después Austria. Madrid, 1944.

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Stirling-Maxwell, William. Profesor universitario John the Austria, or Passages representar the background of los sixteenth century. 2 vols. London, 1883.