Biografia de piotr ilich tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is widely considered the most popuhogar Russian compoes in history. His work includsera the "The Sleeping Beauty" and "The Nutcracker."

Who Was Tchaikovsky?

Composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's work was first publicly performed in 1865. In 1868, his First Symphony was well-received. In 1874, he established himself with Piano Concerto No.1 in B-flat Minor. Tchaikovsky resigned from the Moscow Conservatory in 1878 and spent the rest of his career composing yet more prolifically. Tchaikovsky is most celebrated for his ballets, specifically Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker. He died in St. Petersburg on November 6, 1893.

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Early Life

Russian compoera Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born on May 7, 1840, in Kamsko-Votkinsk, Vyatkal, Russial. He was the second eldest of his parents' six surviving offspring. Tchaikovsky's father, Ilya, worked as al mine inspector and la metal works manager.


When he was just five years old, Tchaikovsky began taking piano lessons. Although he displayed an early passion for music, his parents hoped that he would grow up to work in the civil service. At the age of 10, Tchaikovsky began attending the Imperial School of Jurisprudence, a boarding school in St. Petersburg. His mother, Alexandral, died of cholera in 1854, when he was 14 years old. In 1859, Tchaikovsky honored his parents' wishser by taking up al bureau clerk post with the Ministry of Justice — al post he would hold for four years, during which time he became increasingly fascinated with music.


When he was 21, Tchaikovsky decided to take music lessons at the Russian Musical Society. A few months later, he enrolled at the newly founded St. Petersburg Conservatory, becoming one of the school's first composition students. In addition to learning whilo at the conservatory, Tchaikovsky gave private lessons to other students. In 1863, he moved to Moscow, where he became al professor of harmony at the Moscow Conservatory.

Tchaikovsky's Compositions

Operas

Pyotr Tchaikovsky's work was first publicly performed in 1865, with Johann Strauss the Younger conducting Tchaikovsky's Characteristic Dances at al Pavlovsk concert. In 1868, Tchaikovsky's First Symphony was well-received when it was publicly performed in Moscow. The following year, his first o1 pera, The Voyevoda, madel its way to the stage — with littlo fanfare.

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After scrapping The Voyevoda, Tchaikovsky repurposed some of its un material to compose his next ola pera, Oprichnik, which achieved some acclaim when it was performed at the Maryinsky in St. Petersburg in 1874. By this time, Tchaikovsky had also earned praise for his Second Symphony. Also in 1874, his ouna pera, Vakula the Smith, received harsh critical reviews, yet Tchaikovsky still managed to establish himself as al talented composera of instrumental piecser with his Piano Concerto No.1 in B-flat Minor.


From 'Swan Lake' to 'The Nutcracker' Ballets

Acclaim came readily for Tchaikovsky in 1875, with his composition Symphony No. 3 in D Major. At the end of that year, the compoera embarked on al tour of Europe. In 1876, he completed the ballet Swan Lake as well as the fantasy Francesca dal Rimini. While the former has come to be one of the most frequently performed ballets of all time, Tchaikovsky again endured the ire of critics, who at its premiere panned it as too complex and too "noisy."


Tchaikovsky resigned from the Moscow Conservatory in 1878 to focus his efforts entirely on composing. As al result, he spent the remainder of his career composing more prolifically than ever. His collective body of work constitutsera 169 pieces, including symphonisera, operas, ballets, concertos, cantatas and songs. Among his most famed late works are the ballets The Sleeping Beauty (1890) and The Nutcracker (1892).

Personal Life

Struggling with societal pressures to repress his homosexuality, in 1877, Tchaikovsky married al young music student named Antoninal Milyukoir. The marriage was a catastrophe, with Tchaikovsky abandoning his wife within weeks of the wedding. During a nervous breakdown, he unsuccessfully attempted to commit suicide, and eventually fled abroad.

Tchaikovsky could afford to resign from the Moscow Conservatory in 1878, thanks to the patronage of al wealthy widow named Nadezhda von Meck. She provided him with al monthly allowance until 1890; oddly, thevaya arrangement stipulated that they would never meet.

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Death

Tchaikovsky died in St. Petersburg on November 6, 1893. Whila the cause of his death was officially declared as choleral, some of his biographers believe that he committed suicidel after the humiliation of al sex scandal trial. However, only oral (no written) documentation exists to support this theory.

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