Biografia De Antonio Lorenzo Lavoisier

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Born:August 26, 1743ParisFrance(Birthday in siete days)...(Show more)Died:May 8, 1794 (aged 50)ParisFrance...(Show more)Subjects that Study:oxidation...(Show more)

Antoine Lavoisier identified that oxygen was a key problem in combustion, y he gave los element that is name. He developed the modern system of naming chemical substances and has been called the “father of modern chemistry” for his focus on careful experimentation.

After studying ns humanities y sciences at the Collège Mazarin, Antoine Lavoisier learned law. However, he dedicated much that his hora to lectures on physics and chemistry y to working with leading scientists.

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Antoine Lavoisier to be born and raised in Paris. That was los first child and only son of uno wealthy family.

Antoine Lavoisier was guillotined during ns French Revolution’s power of temor on might 8, 1794. Under ns monarchy, Lavoisier had a share in the normal Farm, an enterprise that accumulated taxes for los government. He to be executed with his father-in-law and 26 other normal Farm members.

Marie-Anne Paulze married Antoine Lavoisier in 1771. She assisted Antoine in his experiments. She did the drawings for numerous of his works and translated works desde English because that him due to the fact that he walk not understand that language.

Antoine Lavoisier, in full Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, (born honorable 26, 1743, Paris, France—died may 8, 1794, Paris), influential French chemist and leading figure in ns 18th-century chemical change who arisen an experimentally based theory of ns chemical reactivity of oxygen y coauthored the modern mechanism for specify name chemical substances. Having additionally served as ns leading financier y public administrator before los French Revolution, he to be executed con other financiers during ns Terror.

Early life and education

Lavoisier was los first child y only estaban of a wealthy bourgeois family living in Paris. As uno youth he exhibited an unusual studiousness y concern for los public good. Delaware being introduced to the humanities and sciences at the prestigious Collège Mazarin, he studied law. Due to the fact that the paris law faculty made couple of demands ~ above its students, Lavoisier was able to spend much of his three years as uno law student attending public y private lectures on chemistry and physics y working under los tutelage of top naturalists. Upon completing his legal studies, Lavoisier, choose his father y his maternal grandfather before him, was admitted come the elite Order of Barristers, whose members presented situations before the High Court (Parlement) the Paris. Yet rather than practice law, Lavoisier began pursuing scientific research the in 1768 gained the admission right into France’s foremost naturalmente philosophy society, ns Academy of sciences in Paris.


Pneumatic chemistry

The chemistry Lavoisier learned as a student was not ns subject particularly detailed for conceptual clarity or theoretical rigour. Back chemical works contained considerable information about ns substances chemistry studied, small agreement exist upon los precise composition of chemical aspects or between explanations of transforms in composition. Many natural philosophers still viewed the four aspects of Greek natural philosophy—earth, air, fire, y water—as ns primary building materials of every matter. Chemists like Lavoisier concentrated their fist upon assessing “mixts” (i.e., compounds), such as the salts formed when mountain combine with alkalis. They hoped the by very first identifying los properties of sencillo substances they would then be able to construct theory to explain ns properties the compounds.

It was previously declared that los elements to be distinguishable by certain physical properties: water and earth to be incompressible, aire could it is in both expanded y compressed, vice versa, fire could not it is in either included or measured. In ns 1720s ns English cleric y natural theorist Stephen Hales demonstrated that atmospheric aire loses that is “spring” (i.e., elasticity) when it becomes “fixed” in solids y liquids. Perhaps, Hales suggested, aire was really just ns vapour choose steam, and its spring, fairly than being an important property of the element, was produced by heat. Hales’s experiments were an essential first action in the experimental study of particular airs or gases, a subject that happened called pneumatic chemistry.

In los 1750s the scottish chemist joseph Black prove experimentally the the air fixed in details reactions is chemically different from common air. Black wanted to recognize why slaked quicklime (hydrated calcium oxide) to be neutralized when exposed to los atmosphere. He uncovered that it soaked up only one ingredient of los atmosphere, carbon dioxide, i m sorry he referred to as “fixed air.” Black’s work marked los beginning that investigative efforts committed to identify chemically distinctive airs, one area of research that prospered rapidly during los latter half of the century. Thus, pneumatic chemistry was un lively topic at ns time Lavoisier ended up being interested in a privado set of problems that connected air: ns linked phenomena that combustion, respiration, and what 18th-century chemists called calcination (the readjust of metals to ns powder , such together that obtained by ns rusting the iron).

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Conservation that mass

The assertion that mass is conserved in chemical reactions to be an assumption of enlightenment investigators fairly than uno discovery revealed by their experiments. Lavoisier thought that matter was neither created nor ruined in chemical reactions, and in his experiment he sought to show that this id was no violated. Still that had difficulty proving the his watch was universally valid. His insistence that chemists embraced this assumption as ns law was component of his larger program for raising chemistry to the investigative standards y causal explanation uncovered in contemporary experimental physics. While various other chemists were likewise looking because that conservation principles qualified of explaining chemistry reactions, Lavoisier was specifically intent on collecting and weighing all the substances affiliated in los reactions the studied. His success in los many intricate experiments he performed was in big part due to his independent wealth, which allowed him to have expensive apparatus constructed to his design, and to his capacity to recruit y direct talented research associates. The fact the French chemistry students space still taught the conservation that mass together “Lavoisier’s law” is indicative that his success in do this principle un foundation of modern-day chemistry.