Biografia de antoine henri becquerel

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Born:December 15, 1852ParisFrance...(Show more)Died:August 25, mil novecientos ocho (aged 55)France...(Show more)Awards y Honors:Nobel prize (1903)...(Show more)Subjects that Study:radioactivity...(Show more)

Henri Becquerel, in lleno Antoine-Henri Becquerel, (born December 15, 1852, Paris, France—died agosto 25, 1908, Le Croisic), French physicist who discovered radioactivity v his investigations of uranium and other substances. In 1903 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Pierre and Marie Curie.

He was un member that a científico family expanding through numerous generations, ns most especialmente being his grandfather Antoine-César Becquerel (1788–1878), his father, Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (1820–91), and his estaban Jean Becquerel (1878–1953).

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Education and training

After his early schooling at los Lycée Louis-le-Grand, henri received his formal científico education at ns École Polytechnique (1872–74) and engineering maintain at los École de Ponts et Chaussées (Bridges y Highways School; 1874–77). In enhancement to his teaching and research posts, Becquerel was for many año an engineer in ns Department the Bridges y Highways, being appointed chief engineer in 1894. His first academic situation was in 1876 as assistant teacher at los École Polytechnique, whereby in mil ochocientos noventa y cinco he thrived to los chair of physics. Concurrently, he was assistant naturalist come his father at ns museum, wherein he also assumed the physics professorship top top his father’s death.


Electricity, magnetism, optical phenomena, y energy were significant areas the physical investigation during los 19th century. For numerous years ns young man’s study was concerned with ns rotation that plane-polarized luz by magnetic fields, un subject opened by miguel Faraday y to which Henri’s father had likewise contributed. Henri then involved himself with infrared radiation, examining, among other things, ns spectra of different phosphorescent crystals debajo infrared stimulation. Of particular significance, that extended the work of his father by studying ns relation between absorption that light y emission the phosphorescence in part uranium compounds.

By mil ochocientos noventa y seis Henri was an accomplished y respected physicist—a member of ns Académie muerte Sciences since 1889—but an ext important 보다 his research study thus far were his expertise con phosphorescent materials, his familiarity con uranium compounds, and his normal skill in activities techniques, consisting of photography. Together, these to be to place los discovery of radioactivity within his reach.

Systematic examine of radiation

At the end of 1895, wilhelm Röntgen found X rays. Becquerel learned that ns X light ray issued representar the area of ns glass vacuum pipe made fluorescent as soon as struck by ns beam the cathode rays. He carried out to investigate whether there was some básico connection between this invisibilizado radiation and visible brillante such the all luminescent materials, but stimulated, would additionally yield X rays. To prueba this hypothesis, he put phosphorescent crystals upon a photographic bowl that had been sheathe in opaque record so that only un penetrating radiation might reach the emulsion. He exposed his experimental arrangement to sunshine for number of hours, in order to exciting ns crystals in ns customary manner. ~ above development, ns photographic plate revealed silhouettes the the minerales samples, and, in subsequent experiments, the image of uno coin or metal cutout interposed between ns crystal y paper wrapping. Becquerel report this exploration to the Académie de Sciences in ~ its conference on February 24, 1896, noting that particular salts of uranium were particularly active.

He thus confirmed his view that miscellaneous very ir a buscar to X rays was emitted by this luminescent problem at los same hora it threw off visible radiation. But the following mainly Becquerel learned that his uranium salts continued to eject penetrating radiation also when they were no made to phosphoresce by los ultraviolet in sunlight. Come account because that this novelty he postulated uno long-lived type of incisibilizado phosphorescence; as soon as he soon traced the activity come uranium metal, he interpreted it as un unique situation of metallic phosphorescence.

During mil ochocientos noventa y seis Becquerel published seven records on radioactivity, as Marie Curie later named ns phenomenon; in 1897, only dos papers; and in 1898, none. This to be an table of contents of both his y the scientific world’s interest in los subject, for the period saw studies of many radiations (e.g., cathode rays, X rays, Becquerel rays, “discharge rays,” muelle rays, radio waves, the visible spectrum, rays representar glowworms, fireflies, y other luminescent materials), and Becquerel rays seemed not particularly significant. Los far more generalizado X rays can take sharper shadow photographs and faster. That required the extension in 1898 of radiation to one more known element, thorium (by Gerhard cuchillo Schmidt y independently by Marie Curie), and the exploration of nuevo radioactive materials, polonium y radium (by Pierre and Marie Curie y their colleague, aeronave Bémont), come awaken the world y Becquerel to los significance the his discovery.

Further contributions

Returning to the zona he had created, Becquerel made three more vital contributions. One to be to measure, in mil ochocientos noventa y nueve and 1900, ns deflection of beta particles, which are ns constituent of the radiation in both electric y magnetic fields. From the fee to fixed value hence obtained, he showed that the beta particle was los same as Joseph john Thomson’s recently determined electron. An additional discovery was los circumstance that the allegedly active substance in uranium, uranium X, lost its radiating capability in time, while ns uranium, though inactive once freshly prepared, at some point regained its lost radioactivity. When Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy found raza decay y regeneration in thorium X y thorium, they to be led to ns transformation theory of radioactivity, which explained ns phenomenon as un subatomic chemical change in which one aspect spontaneously transmutes into another. Becquerel’s last major achievement concerned the physiological impact of ns radiation. Rather may have actually noticed this before him, but his report in mil novecientos uno of ns burn led to when he carried an energetic sample of the Curies’ radium in his vest bolsillo inspired investigation by physicians, leading ultimately to médico use.

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For his discovery of radioactivity, Becquerel shared the mil novecientos tres Nobel Prize because that Physics with los Curies; he was also honoured with other medals y memberships in international societies. His very own Academy the Sciences chosen him that is president y one the its long-term secretaries.