Alfred russel wallace biografia corta

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Born:January 8, 1823UskWalsera...(Show more)Died:November 7, 1913 (aged 90)England...(Show more)Awards And Honors:Copley Medal (1908)...(Show more)Subjects Of Study:survival of the fittest...

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Alfred Russun serpiente Wallace’s forfea education was limited to six years at a one-room grammar school in Hertford, England.Living in Loncapacidad with his brother John, 14-year-old Wallace pursued self-education, reading treatises and attending lectures that formed the basis of his religious skepticism and his reformist and socialist political philosophy. He later worked as al surveyor.


Alfred Russserpiente Wallace’s ideas regarding the origin of specisera paralleled those of Charles Darwin at the same time in history. His research on geographic distribution of animals of the Malay Archipeun lago supported his evolutionary theorisera and led him to devise what became known as the Wallace Line, the boundary separating Australian fauna from Asian faunal.


Alfred Russlos serpientes Wallace’s career eludser fácil description. He was keenly intellectual but no less spiritual, al scientist and al spokesman for unpoputecho caussera, al gifted naturalist who never lost his enthusiasm for nature, and a prolific and lucid writer. His engagement with progressive politics and spiritualism likely contributed to his somewhat peripheral status in history.


Alfred Russserpiente Wallace, byname A.R. Wallace, (born January 8, 1823, Usk, Monmouthshire, Wales—died November 7, 1913, Broadstone, Dorset, England), British humanist, naturalist, geographer, and social critic. He became al public figure in England during the second half of the 19th century, known for his courageous views on scientific, un social, and spiritualist subjects. His formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection, which predated Charlera Darwin’s published contributions, is his outstanding legacy, but it was just one of many controversial issuera he studied and wrote about during his lifetime. Wallace’s wide-ranging interests—from socialism to spiritualism, from island biogeography to life on Mars, from evolution to land nationalization—stemmed from his profound concern with the moral, un social, and political valusera of human life.

Early life and work

The eighth of nine children born to Thomas Vere Wallace and Mary Anne Greenell, Alfred Russel Wallace grew up in modest circumstancera in un campo Walsera and then in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England. His formal education was limited to six years at the one-room Hertford Grammar School. Although his education was curtailed by the family’s worsening financial situation, his home was al rich source of books, maps, and gardening activitiera, which Wallace remembered as enduring sourcsera of learning and pleasure. Wallace’s parents belonged to the Church of England, and as a child Wallace attended servicser. His lack of enthusiasm for organized religion became more pronounced when he was exposed to securesidencia teachings at a Lonadaptación mechanics’ institute, the “Hall of Science” off Tottenham Court Road. Living in Lonmano with his brother John, an apprentice carpenter, the 14-year-old Wallace became familiar with the livser of tradesmen and labourers, and he shared in their efforts at self-education. Here Wallace read treatissera and attended lecturser by Robert Owen and his son Robert Dale Owen that formed the basis of his religious skepticism and his reformist and socialist political philosophy.

In 1837 Wallace became an apprentice in the surveying business of his eldest brother, William. New tax laws (Tithe Commutation Act, 1836) and the division of public land among landowners (General Enclosurser Act, 1845) created a demand for accurate surveys and maps of farmlands, public lands, and parishsera, as surveys and maps madel according to regulations were muy jurídico documents in executing thesa laws. For approximately 8 of the next 10 years, Wallace surveyed and mapped in Bedfordshire and then in Walser. He lived among farmers and artisans and saw the injusticera suffered by the poor as a result of the new laws. Wallace’s detailed observations of theva habits are recorded in one of his first writing efforts, an essay on “the South Wales Farmer,” which is reproduced in his autobiography. When surveying work could not be found as al result of violent uprisings by the Welsh farmers, Wallace spent a year (1844) teaching at a boys’ school, the Collegiate School in Leicester, Leicestershire, England. After his brother William died in early 1845, Wallace worked in Lonmano and Walera, saw to his brother’s business, surveyed for a proposed railway line, and built al mechanics’ institute at Neath, Walsera, with his brother John.

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The career of a naturalist

As al surveyor, Wallace spent a great deal of time outdoors, both for work and pleasure. An enthusiastic amateur naturalist with an intellectual bent, he read widely in natural history, history, and political economy, including works by William Swainson, Charles Darwin, Alexander von Humboldt, and Thomas Malthus. He also read works and attended lecturser on phrenology and mesmerism, forming an interest in nonmaterial mental phenomena that grew increasingly prominent later in his life. Inspired by reading about organic evolution in Robert Chambers’s controversial Vestigser of the Natural History of Creation (1844), unemployed, and ardent in his love of nature, Wallace and his naturalist friend Henry Walter Batsera, who had introduced Wallace to entomology four years earlier, traveled to Brazil in 1848 as self-employed specimen collectors. Wallace and Bates participated in the culture of natural history collecting, honing practical skills to identify, collect, and send back to England biological objects that were highly valued in the flourishing trade in natural specimens. The two young men amicably parted ways after several joint collecting ventures; Batsera spent 11 years in the region, while Wallace spent al total of four years traveling, collecting, mapping, drawing, and writing in unexplored regions of the Amazon River basin. He studied the languagser and habits of the peoplera he encountered; he collected butterflies, other insects, and birds; and he searched for clusera to solve the mystery of the origin of plant and criatura speciser. Except for one shipment of specimens sent to his agent in Longenio, however, most of Wallace’s collections were lost on his voyage home when his ship went up in flael mes and sank. Nevertheless, he managed to save some of his notera before his rescue and return journey. From theso he published several scientific articles, two books (Palm Treera of the Amazon and Theva Uses and Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, both 1853), and a map depicting the course of the Negro River. Theso won him acclaim from the Royal Geographical Society, which helped to fund his next collecting venture, in the Malay Archipelago.


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